Latgale Region borders with Russian Federation in the east, Republic of Belarus in southeast, and Republic of Lithuania in the south. According to the current administrative division , Latgale Region incorporates 19 counties – Aglonas county, Baltinavas county, Balvu county, Ciblas county, Dagdas county, Daugavpils county, Ilūkstes county, Kārsavas county, Krāslavas county, Līvānu county, Ludzas county, Preiļu county, Rēzeknes county, Riebiņu county, Rugāju county, Vārkavas county, Viļakas county, Viļānu county, Zilupes county and two republican cities (Rēzekne and Daugavpils) that have the same administrative status as the districts. Territory of the Region is 14 547 square kilometers, which is 22,52% of territory of Latvia.
Latgale Planning Region does not correspond to the historical and ethnographical region of Latgale. A large part of Jekabpils District on the right bank of the River Daugava belongs to Latgale in historical and ethnographical terms. The historical borderline between Latgale and Vidzeme is the River Aiviekste, which is the largest tributary of the River Daugava.
The characteristic landscape of Latgale with its heights and lowland formed under the impact of a glacier. The East Latvian Lowland and Mudava Lowland areas stretch along northern Latgale. The southern part of Latgale is occupied by Latgale Heights and Augšzeme Heights. The highest point of Latgale is 289 m above the sea level – Lielais Liepu kalns (the Great Linden Mountain).
Diverse relief, woods and fields replaced by lakes and hills interlaced with serpentine highroads account for the typically mosaic Latgale landscape. There are three areas of protected landscapes in the region – that of Augšzeme and along the bends of the Rivers Augšdaugava and Daugava, which are famous for their outstanding picturesque and diverse landscapes and special beauty.
Latgale Region is characterised by great diversity of nature and climatic conditions, which make it different from other regions of Latvia. It has a typical continental climate, more severe winters with thicker snow cover.